The process of cultivation and harvesting of grapes is known as viticulture. Ever-increasing global demand for grapes makes them one of the commercially significant crops of the world. Grape cultivation origins can be found near the Caspian Sea. The primary goal of growing this crop is to process wine and produce raisin, in addition, it is also one of the most consumed table fruit. Jams, jellies, and juices are some of the other processed forms of this popular fruit. China, Italy, the United States, France, and Spain are the major grape-producing countries. It is believed that in India, this crop has been introduced by Persian invaders in the 14th century. Several varieties of grapes are produced in our country that includes coloured, white, seeded, unseeded, large, and small berries. In India, grapes are majorly grown in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the north-western region covering Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. With more than 81.22% of the country’s production, Maharashtra stands at the top place in terms of productivity.
Hot and dry climate is most suitable for grapes, however, they are grown from temperate to warm regions. The ideal temperature range for excellent yield and quality is 15-40° C, temperature above or below this range impacts the overall growth of vines.
Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
The fungus of Downy mildew invades every green part of the vine. Symptoms of powdery mildew and Downy mildew are alike due to this; the farming community often gets confused about the disease.
After infection, leaves started to develop pale yellow-green lesions which eventually turn brown. Damaged leaves frequently drop at a premature stage. Infected parts include petioles, tendrils, and shoots become curl, appear like a shepherd's crook, and gradually develop brown colour and die. White fruiting patterns of fungus often cover the young berries and start infecting them due to their vulnerable nature. A dull grey-green colour develops on older berries of white cultivars while black cultivars become pinkish red. Wet winter followed by a wet spring and a warm summer with recurrent rains increase the outbreak of the infection, resulting in maximum damage to the crop.
India comes in the top ten grape-producing countries. Our country is a substantial exporter of grapes, in 2020-21 it exported 2,46,107.38 MT of Grapes to various countries. Nevertheless, due to various diseases, a certain amount of crop yield gets affected every year. Grape diseases are responsible for reducing total annual production and its comprehensive quality. Downy mildew is one of the major grape diseases that causes an extreme diminution in fruit development.
Dhanuka Agritech Limited’s latest product ‘Kirari’ is manufactured with Japanese technology. Kirari is an innovative contact fungicide that makes a barrier against infection and prevents spores from germination.
Mode of Action & Dosage
The advanced chemistry of this unique solution works with both preventive and curative action. Kirari’s antisporulant action inhibits the growth of sporangium and also stops fungal respiration. Excellent penetration activity and rain fastness allow the farmers to use it effectively with a recommended dose of 150 ml/acre.