Weed is a plant considered undesirable, unattractive or troublesome, especially growing where it is not wanted. These unwanted plants grow in the fields where they compete with the crop for water, soil nutrients, light and space, interfere with irrigation and harvesting operations and finally reduce the crop yields. Weeds also cause several diseases in human beings and animals. They also harbour insects, pests and diseases. A recent estimate by the Directorate of Weed Science Research, Jabalpur showed that weeds account for 37% of the total- annual loss in productivity, with a range from 20 to 100% in different crops /situations.
Weed management through use of herbicides is gaining popularity due to several reasons, one of which is non-availability of agriculture labour. Any chemical that kills the plants or inhibits their growth is known as a herbicide.
Seed is the mother of the plant. Healthy seeds will produce a healthy plant and vice versa. On the seed surface and inside the seeds of field crops and vegetables, a number of disease causing pathogen are present. These micro-organisms are present in soil also and cause diseases. These seed and soil borne diseases may destroy the seeds affecting its germination and also infest the growing seedlings and the plants, resulting in poor plant population and unhealthy crop and finally reduced yield. Hence, to get a healthy crop, the seed should be treated with seed treatment chemicals as per recommendation of the scientists/government.
The seed treatment concept in India is still at infant stage. It is a common practice amongst farmers to use their own seeds and largely without any seed treatment.
Insecticides are chemicals that control insects. Similarly, the chemicals used to control mites (Acarina) are called as Acaricides or miticides.
Insects cause damage to the crops by sucking the plant sap from roots, leaves, stems, by defoliating the plant and by boring the stem, flowers and fruits, resulting in significant reduction in crop yields. In order to control different types of insect pests, the recommended insecticides and dose by the SAUs / ICAR Institutes based on the type of insects and their nature of damage, should be adopted.
The crops are also attacked by different types of mites e.g. red mite, yellow mite etc., which suck the cell sap from the leaves, resulting weakening of the plant, dropping of flowers and fruits and finally reduction in crop yields.
Plant Growth Regulators
In order to have optimum plant growth and production, it is essential that all the essential major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur) and micro nutrients (iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, cobalt and chlorine) are available to the plants in required quantity. The availability of plant nutrients depends on the type of soil and also biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition different enzymes like Gibbrellins, Cytokinins, Oxyzines also contribute to plant growth and yield.
Dhanuka Agritech Limited is also marketing Plant Growth Regulators introduced/ sourced from the reputed forign collaborators after vigorous scientific evaluation at research stations. The details of different Plant Growth Regulators being marketed by Dhanuka are being given in the following pages.